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Akkadian Empire

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Shop Pornhub Store for bestselling shirts , caps and backpacks! Pony x Human fun K views. These difficulties broke out again in the reign of his sons, where revolts broke out during the nine-year reign of Rimush — BC , who fought hard to retain the empire, and was successful until he was assassinated by some of his own courtiers.

Rimush's elder brother, Manishtushu — BC succeeded him. The latter seems to have fought a sea battle against 32 kings who had gathered against him and took control over their pre- Arab country, consisting of modern-day United Arab Emirates and Oman. Despite the success, like his brother he seems to have been assassinated in a palace conspiracy. Naram-Sin also recorded the Akkadian conquest of Ebla as well as Armanum and its king.

Astour believes it to be located north of the Hamrin Mountains in northern Iraq. To better police Syria, he built a royal residence at Tell Brak, a crossroads at the heart of the Khabur River basin of the Jezirah. Naram-Sin campaigned against Magan which also revolted; Naram-Sin "marched against Magan and personally caught Mandannu, its king", where he instated garrisons to protect the main roads.

The chief threat seemed to be coming from the northern Zagros Mountains, the Lulubis and the Gutians. This newfound Akkadian wealth may have been based upon benign climatic conditions, huge agricultural surpluses and the confiscation of the wealth of other peoples.

The economy was highly planned. Grain was cleaned, and rations of grain and oil were distributed in standardized vessels made by the city's potters. Taxes were paid in produce and labour on public walls, including city walls, temples, irrigation canals and waterways, producing huge agricultural surpluses. During the Akkadian period, the Akkadian language became the lingua franca of the Middle East, and was officially used for administration, although the Sumerian language remained as a spoken and literary language.

The spread of Akkadian stretched from Syria to Elam, and even the Elamite language was temporarily written in Mesopotamian cuneiform. Akkadian texts later found their way to far-off places, from Egypt in the Amarna Period and Anatolia , to Persia Behistun.

The empire of Akkad fell, perhaps in the 22nd century BC, within years of its founding, ushering in a " Dark Age " with no prominent imperial authority until Third Dynasty of Ur. The region's political structure may have reverted to the status quo ante of local governance by city-states.

Shu-Durul appears to have restored some centralized authority, however, he was unable to prevent the empire eventually collapsing outright from the invasion of barbarian peoples from the Zagros Mountains known as the Gutians. Little is known about the Gutian period, or how long it endured. Cuneiform sources suggest that the Gutians' administration showed little concern for maintaining agriculture, written records, or public safety; they reputedly released all farm animals to roam about Mesopotamia freely and soon brought about famine and rocketing grain prices.

Who was not king? Irgigi the king; Nanum, the king; Imi the king; Ilulu, the king—the four of them were kings but reigned only three years. Dudu reigned 21 years; Shu-Turul, the son of Dudu, reigned 15 years. Agade was defeated and its kingship carried off to Uruk. In Uruk, Ur-ningin reigned 7 years, Ur-gigir, son of Ur-ningin, reigned 6 years; Kuda reigned 6 years; Puzur-ili reigned 5 years, Ur-Utu reigned 6 years.

Uruk was smitten with weapons and its kingship carried off by the Gutian hordes. However, there are no known year-names or other archaeological evidence verifying any of these later kings of Akkad or Uruk, apart from a single artefact referencing king Dudu of Akkad. The named kings of Uruk may have been contemporaries of the last kings of Akkad, but in any event could not have been very prominent.

In the Gutian hordes, first reigned a nameless king; then Imta reigned 3 years as king; Shulme reigned 6 years; Elulumesh reigned 6 years; Inimbakesh reigned 5 years; Igeshuash reigned 6 years; Iarlagab reigned 15 years; Ibate reigned 3 years; Total 21 kings reigned 91 years, 40 days. The period between c.

Documents again began to be written in Sumerian , although Sumerian was becoming a purely literary or liturgical language, much as Latin later would be in Medieval Europe. One explanation for the end of the Akkadian empire is simply that the Akkadian dynasty could not maintain its political supremacy over other independently powerful city-states.

One theory associates regional decline at the end of the Akkadian period and of the First Intermediary Period following the Old Kingdom in Ancient Egypt was associated with rapidly increasing aridity, and failing rainfall in the region of the Ancient Near East, caused by a global centennial-scale drought. At BC, a marked increase in aridity and wind circulation, subsequent to a volcanic eruption, induced a considerable degradation of land-use conditions. After four centuries of urban life, this abrupt climatic change evidently caused abandonment of Tell Leilan, regional desertion, and collapse of the Akkadian empire based in southern Mesopotamia.

Synchronous collapse in adjacent regions suggests that the impact of the abrupt climatic change was extensive". Excavation at Tell Leilan suggests that this site was abandoned soon after the city's massive walls were constructed, its temple rebuilt and its grain production reorganised. The debris, dust and sand that followed show no trace of human activity. Soil samples show fine wind-blown sand, no trace of earthworm activity, reduced rainfall and indications of a drier and windier climate.

Evidence shows that skeleton-thin sheep and cattle died of drought, and up to 28, people abandoned the site, seeking wetter areas elsewhere.

Nomadic herders such as the Amorites moved herds closer to reliable water suppliers, bringing them into conflict with Akkadian populations. This climate-induced collapse seems to have affected the whole of the Middle East, and to have coincided with the collapse of the Egyptian Old Kingdom.

This collapse of rain-fed agriculture in the Upper Country meant the loss to southern Mesopotamia of the agrarian subsidies which had kept the Akkadian Empire solvent. Water levels within the Tigris and Euphrates fell 1. Such attempts led to increased political instability; meanwhile, severe depression occurred to re-establish demographic equilibrium with the less favourable climatic conditions.

Richard Zettler has critiqued the drought theory, observing that the chronology of the Akkadian empire is very uncertain and that available evidence is not sufficient to show its economic dependence on the northern areas excavated by Weiss and others. He also criticizes Weiss for taking Akkadian writings literally to describe certain catastrophic events. According to Joan Oates , at Tell Brak the soil "signal" associated with the drought lies below the level of Naram-Sin's palace.

Furthermore, Brak remained occupied and functional after the fall of the Akkadians. The Akkadian government formed a "classical standard" with which all future Mesopotamian states compared themselves. Traditionally, the ensi was the highest functionary of the Sumerian city-states. In later traditions, one became an ensi by marrying the goddess Inanna, legitimising the rulership through divine consent.

As Sargon extended his conquest from the "Lower Sea" Persian Gulf , to the "Upper Sea" Mediterranean , it was felt that he ruled "the totality of the lands under heaven", or "from sunrise to sunset", as contemporary texts put it. Under Sargon, the ensi s generally retained their positions, but were seen more as provincial governors.

Sargon is even recorded as having organised naval expeditions to Dilmun Bahrain and Magan, amongst the first organised military naval expeditions in history. Whether he also did in the case of the Mediterranean with the kingdom of Kaptara possibly Cyprus , as claimed in later documents, is more questionable.

Previously a ruler could, like Gilgamesh , become divine after death but the Akkadian kings, from Naram-Sin onward, were considered gods on earth in their lifetimes. Their portraits showed them of larger size than mere mortals and at some distance from their retainers.

One strategy adopted by both Sargon and Naram-Sin, to maintain control of the country, was to install their daughters, Enheduanna and Emmenanna respectively, as high priestess to Sin, the Akkadian version of the Sumerian moon deity, Nanna, at Ur, in the extreme south of Sumer; to install sons as provincial ensi governors in strategic locations; and to marry their daughters to rulers of peripheral parts of the Empire Urkesh and Marhashe.

Records at the Brak administrative complex suggest that the Akkadians appointed locals as tax collectors. The population of Akkad, like nearly all pre-modern states, was entirely dependent upon the agricultural systems of the region, which seem to have had two principal centres: Before the Akkadian period the progressive salinisation of the soils, produced by poorly drained irrigation, had been reducing yields of wheat in the southern part of the country, leading to the conversion to more salt-tolerant barley growing.

Urban populations there had peaked already by 2, BC, and demographic pressures were high, contributing to the rise of militarism apparent immediately before the Akkadian period as seen in the Stele of the Vultures of Eannatum.

Warfare between city states had led to a population decline, from which Akkad provided a temporary respite. The water table in this region was very high and replenished regularly—by winter storms in the headwaters of the Tigris and Euphrates from October to March and from snow-melt from March to July.

Flood levels, that had been stable from about 3, to 2, BC, had started falling, and by the Akkadian period were a half-meter to a meter lower than recorded previously. Even so, the flat country and weather uncertainties made flooding much more unpredictable than in the case of the Nile; serious deluges seem to have been a regular occurrence, requiring constant maintenance of irrigation ditches and drainage systems.

Farmers were recruited into regiments for this work from August to October—a period of food shortage—under the control of city temple authorities, thus acting as a form of unemployment relief. Gwendolyn Leick has [59] suggested that this was Sargon's original employment for the king of Kish, giving him experience in effectively organising large groups of men; a tablet reads, "Sargon, the king, to whom Enlil permitted no rival—5, warriors ate bread daily before him".

Harvest was in the late spring and during the dry summer months. Nomadic Amorites from the northwest would pasture their flocks of sheep and goats to graze on the stubble and be watered from the river and irrigation canals. For this privilege, they would have to pay a tax in wool, meat, milk, and cheese to the temples, who would distribute these products to the bureaucracy and priesthood.

In good years, all would go well, but in bad years, wild winter pastures would be in short supply, nomads would seek to pasture their flocks in the grain fields, and conflicts with farmers would result. It would appear that the subsidizing of southern populations by the import of wheat from the north of the Empire temporarily overcame this problem, [61] and it seems to have allowed economic recovery and a growing population within this region.

As a result, Sumer and Akkad had a surplus of agricultural products but was short of almost everything else, particularly metal ores, timber and building stone, all of which had to be imported. The spread of the Akkadian state as far as the "silver mountain" possibly the Taurus Mountains , the "cedars" of Lebanon, and the copper deposits of Magan, was largely motivated by the goal of securing control over these imports.

One tablet reads "Sargon, the king of Kish, triumphed in thirty-four battles over the cities up to the edge of the sea and destroyed their walls. He made the ships from Meluhha, the ships from Magan and the ships from Dilmun tie up alongside the quay of Agade.

Sargon the king prostrated himself before the god Dagan and made supplication to him; and he Dagan gave him the upper land, namely Mari, Yarmuti, and Ebla, up to the Cedar Forest and up to the Silver Mountain".

In art, there was a great emphasis on the kings of the dynasty, alongside much that continued earlier Sumerian art.

In large works and small ones such as seals, the degree of realism was considerably increased, [62] but the seals show a "grim world of cruel conflict, of danger and uncertainty, a world in which man is subjected without appeal to the incomprehensible acts of distant and fearful divinities who he must serve but cannot love.

Sumerian literature continued in rich development during the Akkadian period. Her known works include hymns to the goddess Inanna , the Exaltation of Inanna and In-nin sa-gur-ra. A third work, the Temple Hymns , a collection of specific hymns, addresses the sacred temples and their occupants, the deity to whom they were consecrated. The works of this poet are significant, because although they start out using the third person, they shift to the first person voice of the poet herself, and they mark a significant development in the use of cuneiform.

As poet, princess, and priestess, she was a person who, according to William W Hallo, "set standards in all three of her roles for many succeeding centuries" [66]. Enheduanna depicts Inanna as disciplining mankind as a goddess of battle. She thereby unites the warlike Akkadian Ishtar's qualities to those of the gentler Sumerian goddess of love and fecundity.

She likens Inanna to a great storm bird who swoops down on the lesser gods and sends them fluttering off like surprised bats. Then, in probably the most interesting part of the hymn, Enheduanna herself steps forward in the first person to recite her own past glories, establishing her credibility, and explaining her present plight. She has been banished as high priestess from the temple in the city of Ur and from Uruk and exiled to the steppe.

She begs the moon god Nanna to intercede for her because the city of Uruk, under the ruler Lugalanne, has rebelled against Sargon. The rebel, Lugalanne, has even destroyed the temple Eanna, one of the greatest temples in the ancient world, and then made advances on his sister-in-law. Later material described how the fall of Akkad was due to Nara-Sin's attack upon the city of Nipper. When prompted by a pair of inauspicious oracles , the king sacked the E -kur temple, supposedly protected by the god Enlil , head of the pantheon.

As a result of this, eight chief deities of the Anunnaki pantheon were supposed to have come together and withdrawn their support from Akkad.

The kings of Akkad were legendary among later Mesopotamian civilizations, with Sargon understood as the prototype of a strong and wise leader, and his grandson Naram-Sin considered the wicked and impious leader Unheilsherrscher in the analysis of Hans Gustav Güterbock who brought ruin upon his kingdom.

Tablets from the periods reads, " From the earliest days no-one had made a statue of lead, but Rimush king of Kish, had a statue of himself made of lead. It stood before Enlil; and it recited his Rimush's virtues to the idu of the gods". The copper Bassetki Statue , cast with the lost wax method, testifies to the high level of skill that craftsmen achieved during the Akkadian period.

The empire was bound together by roads, along which there was a regular postal service. Clay seals that took the place of stamps bear the names of Sargon and his son. A cadastral survey seems also to have been instituted, and one of the documents relating to it states that a certain Uru-Malik, whose name appears to indicate his Canaanite origin, was governor of the land of the Amorites, or Amurru as the semi-nomadic people of Syria and Canaan were called in Akkadian.

It is probable that the first collection of astronomical observations and terrestrial omens was made for a library established by Sargon. The earliest "year names", whereby each year of a king's reign was named after a significant event performed by that king, date from Sargon's reign.

Lists of these "year names" henceforth became a calendrical system used in most independent Mesopotamian city-states. In Assyria, however, years came to be named for the annual presiding limmu official appointed by the king, rather than for an event. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the song by the band audiomachine, see Chronicles Audiomachine album.

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Nimrod's historical identity is unknown, but some have compared him with the legendary Gilgamesh , founder of Uruk.

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